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Glossary

This is intended as a dynamic dictionary of terminology, so if you think any terms should be added or amended please email info@focalint.org

A

  • Academic Access
    Provision of viewing copies of archive footage for research and study in the context of under graduate, post graduate or private study. This usually means provision of the material at a licence fee which is lower than commercial rates, or under a licensing scheme. It is usual to impose conditions (e.g. material may only be viewed in the institution, and/or transmitted over secure networks). See also educational use

  • Access Fee
    Is charged where the archive seeks a financial return on its costs for managing and supply of footage. When an archive supplies its own copyright material, these costs are usually rolled up in the licence fee which the archive charges. Access Fee is often stipulated when third party copyright footage is supplied, when an Access Fee is charged by the archive to supply material (usually master) for which it claims no copyright or ownership. Clearance of the copyright is the responsibility of the person gaining access. This fee can be set at whatever level the archive chooses. See also Technical/Transfer Cost.

  • Advertisements (Non Broadcast)
    Footage used in non transmission for promotional purposes of a commercial product or service. Examples are use of archive footage in an advertising video which the client may use at live events and exhibitions; in public relations materials; at trade, press and investor presentations; retail (point of sale, outdoor environments); in electronic media (e.g. CD-Rom, DVD) which are packaged with the client's products and not for retail sale; the client's internet, extranet and intranet sites. It might include Internet viral marketing. One would need to clarify the required uses in the client contract.

  • All Media
    The use of footage in all media including broadcast and sales with multiple options. Any exclusions (such as Theatrical use) must be stated in a contract's definition of "All Media" - otherwise the term means "absolutely everything" - in some (but not all) countries, this even includes media which have not been invented when the contract was signed.

  • Apple ProRes - also known as ProRes
    A proprietary moving image Codec devised by Apple Corp and widely used among the Film and TV industry. Highly regarded in providing a high quality compressed picture that is also good for general post-production. Also works well for full resolution archive clip delivery globally as supports all international TV standards. Works with SD through to High Definition and easily imported into majority of Edit cutting rooms, available in various ProRes flavours. LT, HQ & Proxy (lower quality) format.

  • Apple Quicktime, QT Pro (various)
    Omni present codec used and accepted internationally, suitable for importing directly into Non Linear systems that work straight onto the edit timeline. QT software is freely downloadable and bundled with many operating systems, QT players also handle MP4 H.264files for viewing.

  • AS11/DPP
    (see AVCintra 100, 200 ultra) The electronic file delivery standard for finished transmission ready material. Currently broadcasters receive a TX master on Video Tape. This tape is quality reviewed by the broadcaster for overall technical quality. The media on this tape is then encoded onto a transmission server system ready for TX. AS11 aims to cut tape physical delivery out of the loop and allow major post production facilities to feed directly into the broadcaster a transmission ready technically assessed programme. Other information is also contained in the file; the all important programme number, title and episode number through to a synopsis and description of the programme ready for on screen publicity. See: www.digitalproductionpartnership.co.uk

  • Audience
    Defined group to whom the licensed content is intended to reach.

  • AVCintra 100, 200 ultra
    Devised originally by Panasonic Broadcast for their P2 range of tapeless cameras allowing high quality compressed images to be recorded on location with the ability to review, shot log and add valuable additional Metadata ready for the edit suite. AVC is now available in 100Mb (HD Broadcast quality) and 200Mb (future ready). AVCintra is acceptable to edit suites via an import toolset . NB. A variant of this file format will be the delivery file for all UK DPP broadcaster deliveries from October 2014, some channels are taking 'digital only' early. This format is known as AS11/DPP compliant.

  • AVI
    Considered a legacy file format dating back 20 years, this native format has minimal processing and therefore occupies much drive space, a compressed DV version also exists. Still supported on various media players, replay of stored archive files is still supported.

  • Avid DNX 185X
    A proprietary moving image Codec devised by Avid Corp and widely used among the Film & TV industry. Highly regarded as providing high quality compressed pictures good for post-production and archive clip distribution, not as commonly requested as the omni-present ProRes but an equal. Supports all worldwide TV standards in High Definition. A DNX 175 also exists for the feature film editing world working solely at 24 frames per second.


C

  • Cable
    The provision of television via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibres or coaxial cables or wireless microwave systems (including free, pay per view and subscription) for reception by the public. The means of delivery to the public through the "system" is not restricted to cable. In addition to cable, the system can also make use of microwave transmission. In both cases, however, the "cable or microwave system" is the cable operator's closed network. For example, a public broadcaster can also use a wireless microwave system.

  • Captured Audience
    An audience exposed to the programme through a non broadcast format. The audience is exposed by the virtue of their physical presence at a screening, as in a cinema or lecture.

  • CD ROM/CDI Rights
    A "shorthand expression" commonly used to mean the right to transfer footage to a digital format and to combine the footage with other images, animation, video sound and software as required to create a computer based programme, and the right to produce, manufacture and distribute the Programme within the Territory in CD-RROM, CD-I. (The contract would have to be consulted, to determine the actual rights granted in a specific case.)

  • CDI
    see CD Rom

  • CDMA
    see Mobile

  • Cinema
    See Public Exhibition, Theatrical Audience.

  • Corporate
    The images shown form part of an in-house training or conference video within a commercial institution promoting a particular product but where the participants are not paying to view the programme.


D

  • Distribution
    The method of delivery for programming. (Not in terms of a distributor who sells programming.)

  • Download Rights
    Enabling the user to receive data to a local system from a remote system for personal viewing for limited time or perpetuity (commercial & non commercial, low & high quality).  Method whereby a person can receive data for personal viewing and hold it on their own computer either to own (DTO) or to view within a limited period (DTV). This may be a commercial transaction or free service.

  • DPX/Cineon
    The original high end film capture file format that has minimal processing giving each pixel 'one vote' this is an uncompressed format with all detail captured. The majority of film preservation scanning projects use this format as file master material for long term storage. The downside is each individual frame is a file in its own right with each hour of film scanning working out at over 1TB of data. In comparison a ProRes or Avid DNX would take up approx 70GB of space but retaining perceived image quality.

  • DVBH
    see Mobile

  • DVCPro/DVCProHD/DV25
    These are file formats developed primarily for recording high quality images onto video tape in the field, allowing quick interchange of tapes/media and access to recorded images, a format widely adopted for News editing etc. This file format can also be used to record archive content and preserve on hard drives in the same form as they originated when filming.

  • DVD
    see Home Video